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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-27

Stem cells in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: Current trends and future perspectives


Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Mysore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. I Girish Kumar
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Bannimantap, SS Nagar, Mysore 570 015, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijor.ijor_45_19

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A simple overview of daily orthodontic practice involves use of brackets, wires and elastomeric modules. However, investigating the underlying effect of orthodontic forces shows various molecular and cellular changes. Also, orthodontics is in close relation with dentofacial orthopedics which involves bone regeneration. In this review, current and future applications of stem cells (SCs) in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics have been discussed. For craniofacial anomalies, SCs have been applied to regenerate hard tissue (such as treatment of alveolar cleft) and soft tissue (such as treatment of hemifacial macrosomia). Several attempts have been done to reconstruct impaired temporomandibular joint. Also, SCs with or without bone scaffolds and growth factors have been used to regenerate bone following distraction osteogenesis of mandibular bone or maxillary expansion. Current evidence shows that SCs also have potential to be used to regenerate infrabony alveolar defects and move the teeth into regenerated areas. Future application of SCs in orthodontics could involve accelerating tooth movement, regenerating resorbed roots and expanding tooth movement limitations. However, evidence supporting these roles is weak and further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of these ideas.


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