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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2020
Volume 11 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-92

Online since Thursday, July 9, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Bilateral maxillary canine impaction with comparable migration track: Prevalence, sociodemographics and radiographic observations p. 47
Bandar Alyami, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_24_20  
Introduction: Canines are perceived as cornerstones of the dental arch and plays an essential role in maintaining the facial coordination. When impacted, these functions are lost. We present the prevalence and radiographic presentation of distinctive bilateral maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients presenting for routine dental treatment between 2018 and 2020 at a dental center, Najran. A total of 2016 panoramic radiographs were screened and all patients with bilateral impacted canines were further screened radiologically using cone beam computed tomography. Data such demographics and presence of bilateral maxillary impacted canines were identified. Data analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for IOS Version 25 (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp). Results: A total of 2016 panoramic radiographs were examined out of which 149 cases were the total impacted canines. Of these, 42 cases were bilateral impacted maxillary canines in comparable migration tract with a prevalence rate of 28.2%. There were 18 males and 24 females with an M: F of 1:1.3. Age ranged from 15 to 75 years with mean age ± standard deviation (27.9 ± 10.6) years. We observed the bilateral impacted canine positions were in relation to the central and lateral incisors in the anterio-posterior plane and the cervical and root portions of the roots of the central and lateral incisors in the inferior-superior plane. We attempted to group them into 3 main types (Types 1-3) with 3 subtypes (Subtypes a-c) each. Limitations: This a hospital based study and findings may not be generalized. Population based study is which is required to find out the prevalent rate in the community. Conclusion: These observed positions can be used to predict the favorability or otherwise of orthodontic traction of the impacted bilateral canines.
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Length of the styloid process associated with different skeletal patterns in Turkish Adolescents p. 54
Turkan Sezen Erhamza, Ali Can Bulut
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_4_20  
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the length of the styloid process (SP) in different skeletal patterns and stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Radiographs involving SP (n = 158; 77 female and 81 male, age with a mean value of 12.84 ± 1.94 years) were evaluated retrospectively. Class I group included 52 subjects (0 ≤ ANB ≤4), Class II group included 57 subjects (ANB>4), and Class III group included 49 subjects (ANB <0). The length of the SP was measured in Photoshop CS5 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). Skeletal maturation stages were determined by the evaluation of hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Statistically significant difference in the length of the SP was found between Class I and Class II group (P ≤≤≤05). The mean length of the SP was 30.68 ± 9.69 mm in Class I group and 34.63 ± 5.87 mm in Class II group. No statistically significant difference was found in between skeletal maturation stages of the groups neither in the bilateral length of the SP between genders. Conclusion: The risk of Eagle syndrome in skeletal Class II malocclusion might be higher. In addition, when a patient is referred with pain in the temporomandibular area with skeletal Class II anomaly, SP elongation should be considered besides the joint problems.
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Evaluation and co-relation of lower anterior facial height and soft-tissue characteristics in between genders in North Indian population: A cephalometric study p. 60
Aftab Azam, Zeyaullah Khan, Ragni Tandon, Pratik Chandra, Ashish Chauhan
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_2_20  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish lateral cephalometric soft-tissue norms for the adolescent North Indian population. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and thirty-three Indian adults of age group 18–30 years were selected. The standardized lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject. Fourteen linear measurements were recorded on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 26). Group differences were analyzed with independent t-test. Results: The results of the study showed significant gender dimorphism, with men having thicker soft tissue structures, larger vertical dimensions, than women. Conclusion: Significant gender dimorphism was evident within the local population suggesting the necessity for a separate set of norms for males and females. Distinct ethnic differences were found between Caucasians and the North Indian population that were statistically significant, highlighting the importance of defining separate set of norms for ethnic groups.
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Comparison of reproducibility of cephalometric measurements derived from handheld (smartphone) device application versus manual cephalometric tracing p. 65
Sarvraj Singh Kohli, Virinder Singh Kohli
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_8_20  
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the reproducibility of cephalometric measurements derived from an application designed for handheld (smartphone) devices and manual cephalometry. Materials and Methods: Thirty pretreatment lateral cephalograms obtained from the same digital cephalostat were analyzed. Tracings were done using CephNinja for iPhone (Cyncronus) and manually by the hand on acetate sheets. Cephalometric landmarks and angular and linear measurements were recorded. All tracings were performed by the same investigator. Statistical Analysis: To evaluate reproducibility, for each cephalometric measurement, the agreement between the value derived from CephNinja, and that measured manually was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was rated as low for an ICC <0.75 and an ICC >0.75 was considered indicative of good agreement. Furthermore, differences in measurements between those derived from CephNinja application and manual tracing were statistically evaluated (P < 0.05). Results: All the measurements had ICC >0.75, indicating high agreement among both the tracing methods. Differences in measurements between CephNinja and hand tracing were not statistically significant for any of the cephalometric parameters. Conclusion(s): Handheld (smartphone)-assisted cephalometric analysis shows good agreement with manual tracing and can be employed for clinical decision-making.
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Assessment of correlation between dermatoglyphics of individuals with different skeletal growth p. 69
Harmeet Kaur, Tripti Tikku, Rohit Khanna, Rana Pratap Maurya, Snehlata Verma, Kamna Srivastava, Anshul Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.289249  
Introduction: Dermatoglyphics refers to the study of the intricate dermal ridge configuration on the skin covering the palmar and planter surfaces of the hands and feet. Dermal ridges are usually established by the 24th week of intrauterine life, which remains constant throughout the life. The development of dentition and palate occurs during the same period and also genetically determined as dermatoglyphics. Hence, it can be assumed that hereditary and environmental factors leading to malocclusion may also influence normal fingerprint pattern. Thus, it was decided to assess the correlation between dermatoglyphics patterns and growth patterns in individuals with Skeletal Class I and Skeletal Class II malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Ninety individuals aged between 18 and 28 years were divided into Skeletal Class I (Group I n = 45) and Skeletal Class II (Group II n = 45) based on Tweed's and Steiner's analysis. Both the groups were further subdivided according to their growth pattern and named as A, B, and C, respectively, for horizontal, average, and vertical. Fingerprints of both hands were taken by the ink and stamp method. The patterns of Arches, Loops, and Whorls in fingerprints were assessed. The data collected were then statistically evaluated using the Chi-square test. Observations: In Skeletal Class I subjects, there was increased frequency of occurrence of whorl-pattern in thumb, plain-arches in little, index, and ring finger, and ulnar-loops in middle finger, whereas in Skeletal Class II subjects, radial-loops were more in number in ring and index finger, plain-arches in little finger, ulnar-loops in the middle finger, and whorl-pattern in the thumb same as Skeletal Class I. Conclusion: No significant correlation was observed between dermatoglyphics and various growth patterns. However, further studies must be conducted on large sample size to validate the findings.
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Assessment of facial asymmetry in individuals having skeletal Class II malocclusion in Uttar Pradesh population: A cephalometric study p. 76
Sonal , Shally Mahajan, Ragni Tandon, Aftab Azam, Pratik Chandra, Ashish Chauhan
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_1_20  
Objective: The objective was to assess facial asymmetry in individuals having skeletal Class II malocclusion in Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty individuals (thirty males and thirty females) between 18 and 27 years of age were selected. The pretreatment lateral cephalograms of the samples selected (n = 60) for the study were divided into two groups, Group I and Group II, after which posteroanterior cephalograms were taken for the measurement of asymmetry. All the cephalometric parameters were defined as quantitative variables. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each measurement was calculated. The results were presented in frequencies, percentages for qualitative data, and mean ± SD for quantitative data. Paired t-test was used to test the significance (P = 0.05 or less) in the difference between the right and left sides of the face. Chi-squared test was used to check the significance of difference in proportions. All the analyses were carried out on MS-Excel and SPSS 16.0 version (Chicago, Inc., Illinois, USA). Results: In Group II, the parameters for mandibular morphology and volumetric comparison and the mean of all parameters taken were statistically insignificant, but the mean for condylion-antegonial notch was greater for the right side, and the difference between the left and right sides was statistically significant (P = 0.019). When comparing the cephalometric parameters between the left and right sides in Group I and Group II, none of the mean values were proved to be statistically significant, but the right side parameters revealed to be greater than the left side of the measured parameters. Conclusion: All participants showed mild skeletal asymmetry on posteroanterior cephalograms, which was not statistically significant. In Group II, the relative mean of condylar asymmetry was statistically significant, which proves the presence of some amount of condylar asymmetry in this group. The other cephalometric parameters measured in our study showed that the value of the same was greater for the right side than the left side.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Correction of morphological and positional asymmetry in early mixed dentition with functional unilateral crossbite p. 82
K Preethi, BK Rajkumar, S Nagalakshmi, KR Rameshkumar
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_40_19  
Unilateral posterior crossbite with functional mandibular shift occurs as a sequelae of constricted maxillary arch, which is usually seen in children between 3 and 12 years of age. Early treatment of this condition helps prevent facial asymmetry, proper functioning of temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscle, and proper development of dentition. Functional unilateral posterior crossbite correction using fan-shaped expander can provide differential expansion. Fan-shaped expander was used in a patient with constricted maxilla having functional unilateral posterior crossbite with asymmetric condylar position and led to the development of favorable differential expansion and correction of asymmetry.
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K-Sir arch for simultaneous intrusion and retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth-A case report p. 88
Sankalp Agnani, Kamal Bajaj
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_5_20  
This case report shows the management of Angle's Class II division 1 Malocclusion with tooth size-arch length discrepancy of − 10 mm in maxillary arch and mandibular arches, proclined upper and lower anteriors, and crowding in relation to lower anteriors. Clinical evaluation revealed Class II dental and skeletal pattern, low mandibular plane angle, incompetent lips, increased overjet and overbite. Simultaneous intrusion and retraction of upper anterior teeth using Kalra Simultaneous Intrusion and Retraction arch was decided due unaesthetic excessive maxillary incisor showing at rest and to provide maximum space for the retraction of anterior teeth. Posttreatment changes were good and stable.
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