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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2018
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 133-172

Online since Friday, December 28, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

Complications of mini-implant anchorage p. 133
A Sumathi Felicita
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_37_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Analysis of facial pattern among 12–16-year-old students in Lagos, Nigeria p. 134
Olawande A Ajisafe, Babatunde O Ogunbanjo, Kikelomo O Adegbite, Afolabi Oyapero
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_22_18  
Background: Facial patterns or biotypes have been known to influence the treatment plan of orthodontic patients and analyze the facial patterns described by Ricketts. Determining the facial type is extremely important for orthodontic diagnosis and planning since the muscular and skeletal configuration of each facial type responds differently to the orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A sample of 100 individuals was recruited by multistage sampling from three schools in Ikeja local government, Lagos State. Those aged between 12 and 16 years who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent and assent from the parents and participants. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for all participants, and the final sample after analysis of the radiographs was 84. The error of the cephalometric method was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Facial axis angle (Ptm-Gn/Ba-N) was used to classify the facial pattern into brachyfacial (<87°), mesofacial (87°–93°), and dolichofacial (>93°) Results: Out of the 84 participants, 60 (71.4%) had mesofacial facial pattern which consisted of 27 (32.1%) males and 33 (39.3%) females. 10 (11.9%) had brachyfacial pattern out of which 9 (10.7%) were male and 1 (1.2%) was a female. This difference between the males and females in the brachyfacial pattern was statistically significant with a P value of 0.014 (P ≤ 0.05). 14 (16.67%) participants had dolichofacial pattern with 5 (6.0%) males and 9 (10.7%) females. Conclusion: The mesofacial pattern had the highest frequency among the facial pattern types studied in this Nigerian population and was found to be more predominant among females. The brachyfacial pattern was seen more frequently in males while the dolichofacial pattern was more prevalent among females. The facial pattern assessment should guide the orthodontist in the use of appropriate mechanics to achieve an overall balanced occlusion and facial profile following orthodontic treatment.
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Norms for anterior–posterior assessment of jaw relationship in Maharashtra population p. 141
Niyati B Potode, Twinkle D Bajaj, Amol A Verulkar, Swapnil B Wankhade, Ratndeep A Lohakpure, Jimmy K Sangatani
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_15_18  
Background: Regularly used parameters for anteroposterior assessment of jaw relationships are ANB angle and Wits appraisal, and recently, beta angle, Yen angle, and W angle are introduced. ANB angle depends on the cranial landmarks and is affected by various factors and often can be misleading. The Wits appraisal does not depend on cranial landmarks, but still has the problem of correctly identifying the functional occlusal plane, which can sometimes be impossible. To overcome these problems, a new measurement, beta angle, was developed at Tufts University. The present study was carried out on Maharashtra population to derive norms of beta angle. Materials and Methods: For selection of sample, the lateral cephalograms were selected from the available patient's records, and the sample was divided into three groups based on the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and profile. Conclusion: The norms of beta angle are between 28.5° and 36.5° in skeletal Class I pattern, <28.5° in skeletal Class II pattern, and >36.5° in skeletal Class III pattern.
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Evaluation of the effect of moisture and saliva on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and moisture insensitive primer: An in vitro study p. 145
I Girish Kumar, A Bhagyalakshmi, BM Shivalinga, N Raghunath
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_44_17  
Introduction: Bonding of orthodontic attachments with acid etching is the most commonly used orthodontic procedure. However, there are certain limitations with acid etching procedure like/moisture contamination, etching time, the concentration of adhesive, etc., Moisture insensitive primers (MIPs) were introduced to overcome these limitations. Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a MIP (Transbond MIP, 3M Unitek) against a conventional primer (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek) when contaminated with saliva – in vitro study. Methodology: Sixty maxillary premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose or due to periodontal involvement with sound buccal surfaces were collected, cleaned thoroughly, and stored in 0.1% (wt/vol) thymol at room temperature for 2 weeks. Following materials were used: Transbond XT Light cure adhesive (3M unitek), Transbond XT primer (3m unitek), Transbond MIP primer (3M unitek), and Metal brackets (3M unitek). A commercially available artificial saliva (AQWET, CIPLA) was used for contamination purpose. Ivoclarbluephase N LED light curing unit were used for curing purpose. Results: Mean bond strength was well above the clinically acceptable bond strength values indicating the use of these hydrophilic bonding materials in contaminated environments (8.5 Mpa for Transbond XT and 9.25 Mpa for Transbond MIP). On comparison of bond strengths of MIP and XT when contaminated with saliva, statistically significant values were obtained with contamination with saliva after primer application. There was a statistically significant increase in the bond strength after primer application (P = 0.233) and before and after primer application (P = 0.027*). Transbond MIP can be used to achieve adequate bond strength in saliva contaminated condition. Conclusion: Under dry condition, the shear bond strength of conventional primer (TRANSBOND XT) was significantly increased when compared to MIP. Under wet conditions MIP (TRANSBOND MIP) showed the highest shear bond strength and hence can be considered as a material of choice in wet conditions.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

An overview of evidence-based dentistry and randomized controlled trials: Importance in the current orthodontic research p. 155
Jasleen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Shikha Virdi
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_41_16  
Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) was developed to help dental care professionals in incorporating the current, valid, and bias-free research into their clinical practice. It is equally important to review and critically appraise the evidence before its adoption into clinical decision-making. In orthodontics, as there are emerging innumerable appliances, materials, and treatment approaches, there is an urgent need to conduct new trials to determine their effectiveness. Recently, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered as the most powerful and strongest research design for the comparison of various treatment interventions. This article gives a brief overview about EBD and RCTs and their importance in the field of orthodontics.
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Orthodontic consideration with patients with bleeding disorders p. 159
Vaidehi N Arekar, Pushpak Ladhe, Apurva Nikte, Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_8_18  
Orthodontist must be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on the management of orthodontic treatment. Initial recognition of a bleeding disorder, which may indicate the presence of a systemic pathologic process, may occur in dental practice. Patients should be queried about any previous unusual bleeding episode after surgery or injury, spontaneous bleeding, and easy or frequent bruising. The purpose of this paper is to review bleeding disorders and their effects on the delivery of orthodontic treatment.
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Nutrition and orthodontics p. 163
Jeevan M Khatri, Vijaymala D Kolhe
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_21_18  
Orthodontic patients avoid many types of food, particularly fruits, raw vegetables, and other hard and tough foods, as they cannot chew these properly because of pressure sensitivity of the teeth in the initial 3–5 days period after routine. As a result, such individuals consume significantly less proteins and other key nutrients, fiber, calcium, nonhem iron, and some vitamins. This article presents an overview of the relationship between diet and orthodontic treatment. The nutritional guidelines to obtain good oral and general health in orthodontic patients are discussed.
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CASE REPORT Top

Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion using forsus fatigue-resistant device p. 168
S B V Ramana Reddy, Venkata Naga Sravanthi Jonnalagadda
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_19_18  
Functional orthopedic appliances are mostly used to treat Class II malocclusion originated from mandibular retrusion. Removable or fixed functional appliances are available to advance the mandible. Fixed appliances can be treated in tandem with multibarcket therapy, thus making it a single-phase treatment. The major disadvantage of fixed functional appliances is proclination of lower anterior teeth. To reduce this proclination, miniplates or miniimplants are being used; negative torque is added to the lower incisors. Despite these additions, the proclination could not be eliminated but minimized. This case report documents the successful treatment of skeletal Class II in late stages of puberty using forsus fatigue resistance appliance with soldered hooks placed distal to the lower canines.
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