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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2019
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 57-98

Online since Monday, June 24, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Assessment of early orthodontic treatment need and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics among Tanzanian children using index for preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment need p. 57
Joseph Paulinus Tungaraza, Matilda Mtaya-Mlangwa, Abella Emeria Mugonzibwa
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_15_19  
Background: Early orthodontic treatment (EOT) aims at identifying and intervening occlusal conditions in primary and early-mixed dentition. Aim: This study aimed at assessing EOT need and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics using the index for preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment needs (IPION) among schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study Setting and Design: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 6 and 9 years. Materials and Methods: Schoolchildren were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic information; clinical examinations were done to record schoolchildren's IPION scores. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using a computer software, SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square test was used for assessing statistical differences between variables; P value was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 667 schoolchildren were involved (59.5% girls; 52.5% 9-year-olds). In 6-year-olds, 77.9% had caries, and in 9-year-olds, 60% had caries. Lower-second primary molars were the most common prematurely lost teeth. Increased overjet was the most frequently recorded occlusal anomaly. Many 9-year-old boys than girls had caries (67.4% vs. 55.5%, P = 0.032). Six-year-olds with mothers who were homemakers compared to those with employed mothers experienced caries (81.7% vs. 71.0%, P = 0.034). Overall, 67.2% and 41.7% of the participants had EOT need and definite EOT need, respectively. Conclusion: EOT need for malocclusions was high in the involved school children, these will thus benefit from preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment programs.
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Evaluation of different force magnitude to orthodontic microimplants on various cortical bone thickness – Three-dimensional finite element analysis p. 65
BC Patil, Akash Kencha, Spoorthy Obalapura, Vishwanath Patil, Kasturi Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_30_18  
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine appropriate range of cortical bone thickness (CBT) to adequately support microimplants and optimum force magnitude on microimplants for minimal stress distribution. Settings and Design: Three-dimensional (3D) CAD models of the desired implant features and cylindrical bone piece of desired height and thickness were exported to FEA software, and variable load was applied on range of different CBT to determine the compressive radial stress and maximum failure load. Subjects and Methods: it is clearly said that CBT of various thickness which will represent human maxilla and mandibular bone. The force magnitudes ranging from 15 g to 150 g (in range of 15 g, 50 g, 85 g, and 150 g) were taken to simulate typical orthodontic forces loaded onto microimplant. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics for windows Version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) software. For quantitative data analysis, ANOVA test was used. Results: For CBTs of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mm, the maximum force magnitudes that could be applied safely were 533.7, 551.7, 552.3, and 552.9, respectively. Even though there was no difference statistically, the amount of displacement for CBT 1.5–3.0 mm is comparatively less than for 0.5 mm. CBT value of 1.5–3.0 mm might be appropriate for microimplant stability. Conclusions: For the purpose of diminishing orthodontic microimplant failure, an optimal force that can be safely loaded onto a microimplant should not exceed a value of around 533–553 g. The CBT of 1.5–3.0 mm might be considered appropriate for the stability of microimplant.
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Comparative evaluation of Tweed's analyses in Class I, Class II, and Class III participants of Central India: A pilot study p. 70
Shail Kumari, Shirish M Bapat, Kshitij Gupta, Bosco Thomas
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_9_19  
Objective: Comparative evaluation of Tweed's analyses in Class I, Class II, and Class III participants of Central India in two different age groups. Materials and Methods: Sample size comprised 240 participants belonged to Central India. Participants were divided into two main groups: Group I comprised 120 young children in the age group of 12–16 years and Group II comprised 120 young adults in the age group of 18–22 years. Tweed's analysis was performed from the collected sample. Results: The lower incisor inclination (incisor-mandibular plane angle [IMPA]) in Central India participants was higher (100.13°) compared to the original Tweed norm of IMPA 90°. Statistically higher value of IMPA was found in young male children compared to young female children in Class II div 1 and Class II div 2 participants and opposite trend was seen in Class III young adults. The Frankfort-mandibular plane angle was found to be significantly more in young adult females (24.93°) than males (18.07°) in Class III participants. Angle IMPA was found to be significantly higher in Class I compared to Class III participants and significantly higher in Class III compared to Class II div 2 participants. Conclusion: The differences of Tweed's parameters in this pilot study indicate that Caucasian norms cannot be truly adhered to Central India participants during orthodontic treatment. Lower incisors were normally more proclined in Central Indian participants and their over retraction during orthodontic treatment would cause prominent chin. Proclination of lower incisor was more in young male children compared to young female children in Class II div 1 and Class II div 2 participants and opposite trend was seen in Class III young adults. Class III female adults show tendency toward vertical growth pattern compared to males. Proclination of lower incisor was found to be more in Class I compared to Class III participants and more in Class III compared to Class II div 2 participants.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Orthodontic apps: A stairway to the future p. 75
Sameer Makarand Phatak, Suchita Sadashiv Daokar
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_10_19  
The increasing usage of smartphones is rapidly changing our lives both personally and professionally. In healthcare and dentistry, various apps are accessible on the smartphone to educate patients about orthodontics and help them through their treatment. Also, various apps are available for the orthodontist to manage patients and to update oneself on the current modalities of treatment. The aim of this article was to review the various apps available on the iOS Apple Store and Google Play Store for patients and orthodontists. Two smartphones were used to search for apps using keywords such as orthodontics, orthodontist, braces specialists, and braces. A total of 354 apps relevant to orthodontics were found on both the iOS and Android platforms. These apps could be classified as patient education apps, patient management apps, diagnostic apps, and updating apps.
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Extending the envelope of regenerative medicine in orthodontics by stem cells p. 82
S D Milling Tania, Ashwin Mathew George
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_20_19  
Stem cell (SC) therapy has become a buzz word in several debilitating diseases in medicine. This rapidly evolving cutting-edge technology has slowly extended its tentacles in dentistry without sparing orthodontics. There are several conditions in orthodontics which are only being partly answered by human-engineered techniques. With the hope of getting a complete solution to several such problems, research in SC therapy has gained momentum in orthodontics for the past few decades. Electronic databases were searched for the material collection; language restriction was not followed. The following keywords were used: stem cell and orthodontics. The search was not limited to any particular type of study design. This review article describes various possible areas in orthodontia where SC therapy will and can be applied in future based on the evidence from a collection of several such studies conducted in those areas.
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A multidisciplinary approach in the management of impacted maxillary canine p. 88
Jeremiah Robert Moshy, Karpal Singh Sohal
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_7_19  
Impaction of maxillary canines is a commonly encountered clinical problem whose treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. Thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is very important in appropriately planning the management of impacted maxillary canine. In the present article, an overview of diagnosing and managing the impacted maxillary canines has been discussed.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Treatment of anterior open bite using mini-implants p. 92
Poornima R Jnaneshwar, Suresh Anand Kumar, Krishnaraj Rajaram
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_26_18  
The paper focuses on orthodontic management of anterior open bite by using mini-implants. Orthodontic mini-implants have been extensively used for anchorage, and they have widened the spectrum of tooth movement that can be achieved. A clinical case with anterior open bite treated with orthodontic fixed mechanotherapy along with mini-implants for anchorage is presented.
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Mini-screw assisted interim pontic p. 95
S B V Ramana Reddy, Jonnalagadda Venkata Naga Sravanthi
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_12_19  
Replacement of missing teeth in growing children is one of the challenges an orthodontist encounters. Removable partial denture or resin-bonded fixed denture can be considered as replacement options, but they promote alveolar bone loss due to lack of alveolar loading. Removable denture is undesirable as adolescents are self-conscious in revealing the edentulous space while eating. Resin-bonded fixed denture compromise alveolar and gingival contours. Dental implants are not placed in growing children due to remaining growth. Orthodontic miniscrews can be efficiently used for interim restoration before skeletal growth. The current article presents a case report of miniscrew-assisted interim tooth pontic.
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