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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 93-149

Online since Wednesday, September 23, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Cephalometric comparison of treatment effects of Twin block and Bionator appliance with an untreated Class II sample p. 93
Santosh Jetu Chavan, Wasundhara Ashok Bhad, Niyati Sunil Mehta
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_19_20  
Objective: Skeletal class II malocclusion is commonly seen in the Indian clinical scenario among the growing population. In the background of newer functional appliances in recent times, Twin block and Bionator still remain widely used in clinical practice. Thus, a prospective clinical trial was designed to study various skeletal and dental effects of these appliances, as well as changes that occur in the control population. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 30 growing individuals with an age range of 9–14 years, showing class II division 1 malocclusion were selected. They were divided into three groups of 10 patients each, of which 10 were controls and 10 patients each for twin block and bionator groups. The average treatment duration was 6 months. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and after the treatment with functional appliances, and selected parameters were compared. Results: There were considerable skeletal and dental changes brought about by both the appliances when compared with controls, however, there were no significant differences in changes brought about by both the appliances when compared with each other. Conclusion: Both Twin block and Bionator appliances can be effectively used for the correction of skeletal class II malocclusion in growing individuals.
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Evaluation of awareness and knowledge of orthodontic extraction pattern in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment among the patient's guardian, general dentist, and oral surgeons: A survey in Central India p. 101
Twinkle D Bajaj, Poorwa B Pakhale, Amol A Verulkar, Ratnadip A Lohakpure, Niyati B Potode, Shivani S Khandelwal
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_12_20  
Introduction: Extractions in orthodontics remain a relatively controversial concept still today. The present study was conducted to elucidate and evaluate the awareness and knowledge among the patient's guardian, oral surgeons, and general dentists on orthodontic extraction pattern being followed in the central parts of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the patient's guardian, oral surgeons, and general dentists in central parts of India through an e-survey using Google Forms. The sample size was 500 and e-mails were sent to 850 members through Google Form. Questionnaire was distributed and responses were evaluated. The online recorded information was converted into codes and analyzed. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics and expressed in the form of frequency and percentages. Results: Most of the responses by patient's guardian, dentist, and oral surgeon are for extracting teeth simultaneously on the same side per jaw and follow it accordingly, and also important finding of responses is for extracting teeth after starting orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: It was observed that most of the general dentists and oral surgeons agree with the cordial concept of extracting teeth simultaneously on the same side per jaw and follow it accordingly. It was observed to be comfortable for the patients in extracting teeth in two appointments as per the pain bearing capacity and convenience.
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Comparison of bonding characteristics of a newly introduced light cure adhesive system with conventional adhesive system p. 106
Anju Mary Philip, S Babukuttan Pillai, G Sreejith Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_11_20  
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of newly introduced light cure adhesive system (eXact, TP Orthodontics) with respect to conventionally used adhesive system (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek) by comparing their shear bond strengths and Adhesive Remnant Index after subjecting to thermocycling. Methods: Thirty human maxillary first premolars were divided into two groups. Group I (Experimental Group) was bonded with adhesive system eXact and Group II (Control Group) with Transbond XT. After thermocycling, shear bond strengths and adhesive remnants index were compared using SPSS Software. Independent-t test was used to compare the shear bond strength values and Chi-Square Test to compare ARI scores. Results: The mean shear bond strength of the Group I and Group II were 9.60±1.41 MPa and 11.65± 2.07 MPa respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the two Groups (P < 0.05). The mean and (±SD) of ARI Scores of Group I and Group II were 2.80 ± 0.414 and 1.93 ± 0.594, respectively, which was statistically significant. The mean ARI score difference of the two adhesives were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The SBS of conventional light cure composite resin (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek) is comparatively higher than the new light-cure composite resin (eXact, TP Orthodontics); but eXact have SBS higher than the clinically acceptable values. ARI score value is higher for eXact as compared to Transbond XT.
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Change in the examination pattern in 1st year MDS- boon or bane: A Survey p. 112
Shivani Khandelwal, Shweta Kolhe, Amol Verulkar, Twinkle Bajaj, Niyati Potode, Poorwa Pakhale
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_14_20  
Introduction: Pursuant to the notification published by Dental Council of India, dated May 17, 2018, no. DE-14-MDS-2018/2131, the committee amended the regulation on postgraduated MDS student and made provision of giving MDS – paper I (basic science paper) at the end of 1st year. Assessment of this survey will provide clear information regarding the response of postgraduate students and teachers. The aim of this article is to report and discuss the characteristics of new-learning processes. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 sample sizes were included, i.e., 300 postgraduate students and 100 postgraduate teachers. Questions were generated using Google form to gain access an establish rapport with participants and to obtain open, honest understanding of the participants “learning experience.” The link was sent to the participants using E-mails or Whatsapp number. Results: Analysis of survey data was done using the Likert scale. Comparison of responses was done using the Chi-square test. [Graph 1], [Graph 2], [Graph 3], [Graph 4], [Graph 5], [Graph 6], [Graph 7], [Graph 8], [Graph 9], [Graph 10] provide responses of participants. Conclusion: Postgraduate students and PG teachers are neutral toward the initial protocol of examination. Participants have positive attitude toward new framework. However, curriculum activity such as library dissertation, dissertation selection, and patient work get disturbed somewhere. It might take time for both students and guide to get familiar with new.
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Patients' perception on mini-screws used for orthodontic treatment in Class II Malocclusion p. 118
Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale, Sameer Madhukarrao Parhad, Girish C Rathi, Kapil K Fafat, Rakesh Nathani, Arun R Mhaske, Dipak Baliram Patil, Harshal Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_18_20  
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to clinically evaluate the perception of pain of mini-screws in the maxillary arch for anchorage control for retraction of maxillary anterior segment in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of fifty adult patients with a mean age of 24.5 years, with Class II malocclusion, and the patients were divided into two groups. In Group A, 0.022” McLaughlin, Bennett, and Trevisi Bracket System (MBT) was used in 25 patients as fixed orthodontic treatment and 0.016” nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire was placed for initial alignment, whereas in Group B, a total of fifty mini-screws were placed in 25 patients, one mini-screw on each side in the maxilla between the 2nd premolar and the 1st molar. The patients answered a questionnaire to assess their opinions on treatment. Results: The data of description of pain experienced in 24 h, 2nd day, and 7th day in Group A and Group B are enumerated. In Group A, the pain experienced in 24 h, 2nd day, and 7th day was 49.72 (36.22), 37.17 (35.32), and 17.34 (14.45) and in Group B, it was 24.72 (15.65), 13.32 (14.34), and 12.45 (11.60), respectively. The questionnaire set was completed for functional aspect evaluation. The descriptive data of visual analog scale were presented. During this study, patient had difficulty in eating, food sticking around implant, and interference during tooth brushing was moderate, but there was no any anaesthetic appearance and disturbance in chewing ability was noted. Statistical Analysis: The nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were performed to evaluate the differences between the groups for pain. The Chi-square test was used to determine differences between the procedures. Differences at P < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. Statistical software, namely, SAS 9.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and Systat 11.0 (Systat Software Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), were used for the analysis of data. Conclusion: The present study stated that the pain experience after mini-screw insertion is significantly low. The peak of the pain and discomfort level was recorded 4 h to 24 h following the insertion. Thus, mini-screws were found to be an acceptable option in providing orthodontic treatment
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Influence of chronic congenital systemic disorder effects in orthodontic treatment p. 123
I Girish Kumar, N Raghunath, H Jyothikiran, S Ravi, S Pradeep
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_22_20  
The orthodontic treatment of patients with medical disorders is becoming an increasing aspect of modern-day practice. Orthodontic treatment is no longer reserved for only healthy patients. With better management of serious medical problems, increased quality of life expectations, and greater ambulation, medically compromised individuals are now regular visitors to orthodontic practices. While orthodontic treatment has been historically considered to be completely noninvasive, specific orthodontic procedures may place some patients at risk for serious sequelae. Among the most common of these conditions are those associated with cardiovascular disease, bleeding disorder, respiratory disorder, neurological disorder, renal disease, musculoskeletal system, endocrine disorder, liver disease, allergies, and drug side effects. Aggressive risk assessment is the key factor in the identification and prevention of medically associated problems. Assessment and management of patients at risk for endocarditis, bleeding, and asthmatic attacks are discussed. The orthodontic treatment of patients with medical disorders is becoming an increasing aspect of modern-day practice. The influences of various systemic diseases on orthodontic treatment have been discussed and various recommendations to overcome the potential problems have been highlighted in this article.
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An update on orthodontic brackets – A review p. 136
Jeevan M Khatri, Swapnil Suresh Sawant, Nakul Rajendra Naidu, Snehal Sharad Vispute, Krutika Ajay Patankar
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_13_20  
Orthodontics is been at great service to mankind. Orthodontics is a field that has been around since the early 18th century. Modern day orthodontists have generations of predecessors to learn their techniques. Technology used in orthodontic treatment continues to progress at an incredible pace. New discoveries and inventions have allowed orthodontists to bring better experiences to their patients with less of the hassle. If we want to continue providing fast, efficient, and effective treatment to our patients, we need to make sure that we stay up-to-date with changes in the field. Orthodontic brackets have evolved from Angle's era to the MBT brackets followed by lingual brackets. These brackets have made the life of the orthodontists much easier. As technology advances many more new materials and designs will be coming forward. The purpose of this article is to review the recent advancements in orthodontic brackets and how the science behind them helps the orthodontist in the day-to-day practice.
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CASE REPORT Top

Dental midline correction using a cantilever spring: A novel approach p. 145
Tanmay Mittal, Harpreet Singh, Pranav Kapoor, Poonam Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_23_20  
A 13-year-old patient presented with Angle's Class II subdivision right malocclusion with anterior crowding, protruded lower incisors, and a lower arch that was skewed to the left. A morphological lower midline shift of 3 mm to the left was detected. Following extraction of the upper and lower first premolars, full-arch 0.022” MBT™ appliances were placed in both arches. A 0.018” × 0.025” stainless steel archwire was split into two posterior segments and an anterior segment from the right lateral incisor to the left canine including an open vertical helical loop extending apically toward the center of resistance of the consolidated anterior segment. Subsequently, a 0.017” × 0.025” titanium–molybdenum alloy cantilever spring from the right first molar auxiliary tube was bent buccally and connected to the loop with an elastomeric chain to achieve lower midline correction by translation. Midline correction with the use of segmented-wire technique and cantilever spring provides an effective method of incisor movement by translation with minimal side effects.
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