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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2020
Volume 11 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 151-202

Online since Tuesday, January 19, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Relationship between maxillary sinus findings, Schneiderian membrane thickness, and various skeletal malocclusions in a selected sample of ethnic Kashmiri population: A retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study p. 151
Abdul Baais Akhoon, Mohammad Mushtaq, Zubair Ahmad Akhoon
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_29_20  
Objective: There are very limited studies which have investigated the relationship between maxillary sinus findings and skeletal malocclusion based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between the patients' skeletal malocclusion and the maxillary sinus findings in ethnic Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 CBCT scans were examined and divided into three groups according to skeletal classification. Two experienced observers reviewed the CBCT images and recorded all maxillary sinus findings. The patients' skeletal malocclusion, the thickness of the Schneiderian membrane, and the pathologic maxillary sinus findings were evaluated. Results: The maxillary sinus findings were classified into five groups: 0 = no finding, 1 = mucosal thickening, 2 = polypoidal thickening, 3 = partial opacification, and 4 = total opacification. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the skeletal malocclusion and pathological maxillary sinus findings. However, there were significant differences in the Schneiderian membrane thicknesses between the groups. Conclusion: The Schneiderian membrane thickness was significantly different for Class II and Class III patients (P = 0.002). It was lowest for Class II and highest for Class III group. The relationship between pathological maxillary sinus findings and skeletal malocclusions was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05).
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A correlative study to evaluate the effect of various skeletal and dentoalveolar parameters on smile esthetics in different malocclusion groups p. 157
Kanupriya Tarnach, Shruti Mittal, Prerna Hoogan Teja
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_9_20  
Introduction: The smile is one of the most effective means by which people convey their emotions and from a social standpoint, it is viewed frontally more often than in profile. Smiles can be either posed or spontaneous. Peck and Peck classified smiles as Stages I and II, and Ackerman et al. classified smiles into two basic types: the social smile and the enjoyment smile. Each type involves a different anatomic presentation of the elements of the display zone. Smile characteristics are determined by the interplay of static and dynamic relationships between the dentoskeletal and soft-tissue components of the face. Hence, a study was planned to understand the influence of various skeletal and dentoalveolar parameters on smile esthetics in different malocclusion groups. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects in the age range of 17–25 years were selected and skeletally divided into Groups I and II on the basis of beta angle, ANB angle, and Wits appraisal. Group II was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of Angle's classification of the malocclusion. Various skeletal and dental parameters were measured on cephalogram and smile measurements were made on facial photographs in Adobe Photoshop. Various statistical tests were applied for assessment and comparison of various skeletal and dentoalveolar parameters and their correlation with smile esthetics were in different malocclusion groups. Results: Upper lip length was maximum in Class II div 2 malocclusion patients and least in Class I malocclusion patients. It was maximum in horizontal growth pattern patients. It decreased with the increase in proclination of upper incisors. Maxillary incisal display at rest and smile was maximum in Class II div 1 malocclusion patients and least in Class II div 2 malocclusion patients. It was maximum in vertical growth pattern individuals. It increased with the increase in proclination of upper incisors. A similar tendency was shown by the Morley ratio and modified smile. Lip competency was maximum in Class II div 2 patients and minimum in Class II div 1 patients. It was maximum in horizontal growth pattern patients. Proclination of the incisors decreased the lip competency. Conclusions: Different skeletal patterns exhibit their characteristic smile features. Orthodontic treatment should be planned considering the correlation of skeletal and dental effects on smile esthetics.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Tooth transplantation and orthodontic movements p. 168
Ariadna Colom, Fernando De la Iglesia, Alvaro De la Iglesia, Ernest Lucas-Taulé, Marc Llaquet, Andreu Puigdollers, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_26_20  
Dental autotransplants have been performed successfully for many years, but little has been written about its relationship with orthodontics. This article is a review which analyses and highlights all the details about the orthodontic movement in autotransplanted teeth according to their root development. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were the following: human and animal model studies, retrospective and prospective clinical studies, case series, systematic reviews, any tooth type, minimum 20 transplants, languages of publication in Spanish and English, follow-up of at least 1 year, and publications between 1985 and 2017. After examining the titles and abstracts, 168 articles were evaluated, discarding those that were not within the inclusion criteria for agreement and relationship to the research topic.
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Artificial intelligence and machine learning: The new paradigm in orthodontic practice p. 175
V Ganesh Shetty, Rohan Rai, K Nillan Shetty
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_35_20  
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are powerful tools that can be utilized to overcome some of the clinical problems that orthodontists face daily. With the availability of more data, better AI and ML systems should be expected to be developed that will help orthodontists to practise more efficiently and improve the quality of care. AI is a subfield of computer science concerned with developing computers and programs that have the ability to perceive information and reason, and ultimately, convert that information into intelligent actions. The future may be purely digitized, at the comforts of our home, with orthodontists developing neural programs with orthodontic decision markers to aid in developing AI for patients to take less visits, make more use of their time using orthodontic appliances, and enhance the quality of work. This article will briefly discuss the contributions AI and ML in orthodontics, its history and various uses in orthodontics in specific, and the possibility of development.
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Criteria for evaluation of finishing and detailing in orthodontics p. 180
Mahendra Kondle, Suresh Kangane, Anand Ambekar, Yatish Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_10_20  
Finishing is perhaps one of the most deceiving and difficult phases of orthodontic treatment. The finishing procedures are considered from the beginning stages of the treatment as a part of total scheme of treatment. The great deal of emphasis is placed on achieving perfect finishing and detailing of the orthodontic treatment, so that the results are pleasing to the eye and are more stable and conducive to improved function and health. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge about different criteria about finishing and detailing in orthodontics.
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New normality among orthodontists amid pandemic COVID-19 p. 189
Parijat Chakraborty, Pranshu Mathur, Ragni Tandon, Pratik Chandra, Richa Dhingra
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_27_20  
The most recently found illness COVID-19 is a viral disease that started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The dental procedures consist of the use of aerosols when treating patients. Orthodontists, hence, must be aware of the available evidence and guidelines to create a safe environment for themselves, their patients, and the entire orthodontic team. The following literature includes various protocols, ways out to deal with the pandemic situation, as well as describes the new normality to be accepted post pandemic in clinics as well as college departments.
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Ligation ties in orthodontics p. 193
Jeevan M Khatri, Snehal Sharad Vispute, Vijaymala D Kolhe, Swapnil Suresh Sawant, Ravisha Sanju Salve
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_15_20  
During fixed orthodontic treatment, ligation method refers to the means by which an archwire is held inside the bracket. It can also be used to move the tooth in a particular direction depending on the type of ligature used and its method of ligation. Ligation can be done using stainless steel ligatures or elastomeric modules, or more recently, ligation methods have been designed and built directly into the bracket. Metal or elastic ligatures are used for this purpose, and the way they are tied affects tooth movement. Because of their design, twin brackets can be tied in a large variety of ways. Knowing how to use all the bracket's resources makes for better and faster treatment results. Elastic ligature may be a substitute for the wire ligatures in most situations. In various treatment mechanics, ligation ties are modified to accomplish variable tooth movement or to maintain arch form integrity during finishing of an orthodontic case. This article will highlight different ligation methods used in different bracket systems and their indications as well.
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CLINICAL INNOVATION Top

A Novel appliance for the correction of scissor bite p. 199
Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali, Akashdeep Singh Bal
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_30_20  
The transverse discrepancies of the occlusion are the common problems that are encountered in routine orthodontic practice. The most cited dental transverse discrepancies are the crossbite and scissor bite. Scissor bite is one of the toughest malocclusion to correct, and the appliances available for the effective correction are limited. one of the cause for scissor bite can be the expanded maxillary arch. The current manuscript demonstrates the effective correction of the expanded maxillary arch using the new TAS appliance. TAS appliance is an acronym for the authors (T-Tarulatha, A-Akashdeep, and S-Shyagali). The appliance construction is based on the sound biomechanical principles as well. The force was applied from the lingual side, and the applied force was nearer to the center of resistance of all the posterior teeth. Thus, the appliance produced less tipping of the molars. Unlike earlier mechanics used for the correction of scissor bite, the current appliance is not dependent on patient compliance, does not require archwire modification or the invasive procedure such as placement of mini implants or surgical intervention. The novel design of TAS appliance can help the clinician to correct the stubborn transverse discrepancy in an effective manner.
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