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   2019| October-December  | Volume 10 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 17, 2019

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Bite force - What we should know: A literature review
Talat Hasan Al-Gunaid
October-December 2019, 10(4):168-174
Ultimate and balanced occlusion is an inevitable result of harmony and consistency between the upper and lower jaws, teeth, temporomandibular joint, and muscular system. The magnitude of bite force reflects this coordination positively. For many researchers, maximum bite force has been a topic of interest, and several studies have been conducted to determine the relationship between maximum bite force and various parameters. These include facial morphology, age, sex, body mass index, temporomandibular disorders, occlusion, and orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatments. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a thorough overview of the literature and highlight the possible impacts of certain factors that might affect the maximum bite force.
  1,493 244 -
Open bites in a Saudi Arabian subpopulation presenting for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study from Najran province
Bandar Alyami, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Salem Almoammar, Mahmoud Omar Ibrahim
October-December 2019, 10(4):147-151
Background: Open bite (OB) is a vertical malocclusion and is considered the most challenging malocclusion to manage. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence and describe the pattern of OB among patients presenting for orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-six male and female patients who were presenting for orthodontic treatment of dental malocclusion were retrospectively reviewed. They were screened with cephalometric X-rays. Demographics and type of OBs were retrieved. Data were stored and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for IOS Version 25 (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp). Results: Of the 326 cases who presented for the management of different types of malocclusion, 78 (23.9%) had OB. There were 23 (29.5%) males and 55 (70.5%) females with an M: F ratio of 1:2.4. Age ranged from 9 to 40 years with mean ± standard deviation (19.5 ± 6.9). Most of the patients (33, 42.4%) were cases of anterior OB (AOB), 20 (25.6%) were cases of posterior OB (POB), while 25 (32.0%) cases were combined OB (COB). Bulk of the patients had Class I molar relationship (42, 53.8%). Six (7.7%) patients reported being involved in oral habits. Conclusion: A high prevalence of 42.4% of AOB, 25.6% of POB, and 32.0% for COB was reported. A population-based study is required in Najran province among preschool and early school children.
  1,119 164 -
Cheiloscopy: Association of lip prints in different skeletal malocclusions
Srishti Aditi, Tripti Tikku, Rohit Khanna, RP Maurya, Sneh Lata Verma, Kamna Srivastava, Anshul Srivastava
October-December 2019, 10(4):156-160
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the association between lip print pattern and different types of skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 individuals (18–30 years old) with skeletal Class I, Class II Division 1, Class II Division 2, and Class III malocclusion as confirmed by Angle between point A and point B. angle were taken for the study and were named as Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Lip print was recorded by lipstick-paper method and was classified according to Tsuchihashi classification as Type I, Type I', Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type V. Results: It was seen that partial vertical groove (PVG) lip pattern was most prevalent for all the groups. In skeletal Class I, PVG lip pattern was most prevalent, whereas in skeletal Class II Division 1, intersecting groove, in skeletal Class II Division 2, PVG, and in skeletal Class III, complete vertical groove were prevalent. The difference between the four malocclusion groups of each type of lip print was significant except for Type II. Conclusion: Lip print will help in sorting out participants in more reliable manner in cases of mass disaster or criminal investigations. Furthermore, they help in predicting type of malocclusion beforehand for the successful execution of preventive and interceptive orthodontic procedures.
  1,081 175 -
Oil pulling as an adjunct to improve oral health in orthodontic patients: A clinicomicrobial study
Shweta Abhijit Kolhe, Sheetal Patani, Nitin Gulve, Rakesh Pawar, Sumit V Dhope, Harshal Gajeshwar
October-December 2019, 10(4):152-155
Introduction: Oil pulling is an Indian folk remedy with both systemic and dental benefits ranging from the strengthening of teeth, gums and jaws, preventing decay, oral malodor, and bleeding gums. However, there are limited scientific data illustrating the role of oil pulling as an adjunct to improve the oral health in orthodontic patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil to improve oral health in orthodontic patients as compared to chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth wash. Settings and Design: Twenty patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly selected. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group and the control or CHX group with ten subjects in each group. Methods and Material: Colony-forming unit counts of bacteria were assessed at baseline and after 14 days. Furthermore, patient acceptance from either group was evaluated using a questionnaire. Conclusion: The oil pulling therapy showed a reduction in total colony counts of aerobic microorganisms in the patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.
  1,073 179 -
Assessment and correlation of the position and orientation of the hyoid bone in Class I, Class II, and Class III Malocclusions
Aishwarya Prashant Gundawar, Deven Mahesh Rawlani, Amol S Patil, Anand Sabane
October-December 2019, 10(4):161-167
Objective: This study aims to examine and correlate the position and orientation of the hyoid bone in Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 pretreatment digital lateral cephalograms were chosen in accordance with the established criteria and categorized into three groups, namely: Class I (n = 30), Class II (n = 37), and Class III (n = 23) malocclusions. The lateral cephalograms were traced and various linear and angular parameters such as MPH, H-NL, H-Go, H-Me, H-FH, H-C3, NSH, and H-NL were measured. The standard deviation and arithmetic mean values were computed for every measurement, after which independent t-test was conducted to study the variations between the skeletal classes of malocclusions. Results: The linear measurements of H-Me and H-C3 were found to be statistically significant. The angular measurements of SNA and ANB were also statistically significant and indicated the dissimilarities in the different classes of malocclusions. The anteroposterior position of hyoid bone was established, but the superoinferior positioning was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: A significant difference occurs in the position and orientation of Hyoid Bone in relation to its surrounding structures in Class I, II, and III malocclusions. The hyoid bone is more anteriorly placed in Class III malocclusions than Class II which is more posteriorly placed. The superoinferior positioning of hyoid bone was found to be statistically insignificant in this study.
  921 146 -
Rapid maxillary expansion in a pseudo Class III malocclusion with blocked out maxillary canines
Vanashree Vilas Takane, Kanhoba Mahabaleshwar Keluskar, Siddharth Shirsat, Ganesh Prasad Shetty
October-December 2019, 10(4):180-184
A major factor determining if early correction of an anterior crossbite will be stable is the achievement of a positive overbite. A clinician should avoid extracting maxillary teeth in Class III cases to contain the forward growth of the mandible. This article presents a case report of a pseudo Class III patient with anterior crossbite and maxillary blocked out canines, based on the best available evidence. We hereby propose a combination of rapid maxillary expansion with 2 × 4 appliance to provide a predictable and effective approach to managing pseudo Class III treatment with blocked out canines (moderate crowding) that were once considered implausible. A clinician should avoid extracting maxillary teeth in Class III cases to contain the forward growth of the mandible.
  775 119 -
Klippel–Feil syndrome: A rare case and its management
Vinni Arora, Rekha Sharma, Mehak Bansal, Dhiraj Garg
October-December 2019, 10(4):175-179
A relatively smaller number of orthodontic patients are affected by known craniofacial anomalies that affect oral and dental tissues. The greatest advantage in knowing that a patient has a particular syndrome is that it allows a much better prediction of future development that might happen in such individual and necessary precautions to be taken while management of these cases. This case report provides features of a patient with Klippel–Feil syndrome and orthosurgical management of an adult male to effectively improve patient esthetics and function.
  723 88 -
Correction of bilaterally rotated premolars in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients: An innovative approach
Deepak Chauhan, Sanjeev Datana, Vishvaroop Nagpal, SS Agarwal, Varun Govindraj
October-December 2019, 10(4):185-187
Maxillary hypoplasia is a constant feature among patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP), more pronounced in sagittal and transverse dimensions. Transverse maxillary deficiency is first addressed using various expansion appliances. Due to the excessive scarring on the palatal tissue, there is a high chance of relapse of the expansion achieved, and the challenge is to hold the results achieved. Palatal arch holding appliance is commonly used to prevent relapse and to maintain the achieved expansion. Management of difficult cases like bilateral CLP (BCLP) demands speeding up the pace of treatment by innovations in the appliance structures or treatment procedures to shorten the treatment period. This article attempts to address the reduction in the total treatment time in BCLP patients with a clinical modification of conventional treatment modality.
  613 79 -